Services are provided for any student who qualifies as a result of formal reading assessments, such as the Benchmark Assessment System, The Observation Survey, and the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS).
Title I service interventions are delivered in two sessions (September-January and February-June). Students may participate in one or both intervention sessions during the year. Students enter and exit the program during the school year based on the results of the beginning, middle and end-of-year reading formative assessments.
Literacy Support (Grades K-2)
Students receive additional literacy instruction in small peer groups or one-to-one with a literacy support teacher. Literacy Support teachers work with students in the classroom, during the literacy block, and outside of the classroom in a literacy support setting.
Literacy Support lessons include both fiction and non-fiction texts. The books are leveled or “just right” so that students can access the text with varying levels of teacher support, depending on what reading strategies the student is learning or practicing.
Student writing and word analysis support varies during lessons depending on the students' use of reading and writing strategies, as well as the overall lesson goals. Literacy Support lessons are specifically designed to meet each student's individual needs.
The objective of a literacy support intervention is to increase students' reading and writing skills in order to read and comprehend higher level texts. Title I teachers also collaborate with the classroom teachers to supplement and reinforce students' literacy instruction and to monitor their literacy progress.
Reading Recovery (Grade 1)
First grade students may participate in one-to-one 30 minute daily literacy intervention lessons. Students learn reading and writing strategies using materials and texts that match their interest and reading level. Programming is individualized and supplemental to the first grade literacy curriculum.
Each lesson includes reading familiar stories to practice fluency, working with letters and sounds to engage in word analysis, and writing a story to practice word construction. Each day a new “just-right” leveled book is introduced for the student to read. This book allows the student to problem-solve some new vocabulary and is followed up with comprehension questions about the story. Books are sent home daily so children can practice reading fluency and gain confidence.
The immediate goal of Reading Recovery is to help children to read confidently and successfully with their peers in first grade. The long-term goal is for children to continue to improve in reading and writing through their regular class instruction and their independent reading.
Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI)
This short-term intervention is designed for students in K-2 who struggle with reading and writing. The goal is to provide intensive reading and writing support to help learners quickly reach grade-level benchmarks. The 30-minute, daily intervention is typically conducted in groups of three students, which enables strategic teaching designed to support individual students. The LLI intervention is supplemental to the instruction provided by the classroom teacher.
Students read books at both independent and instructional text levels, write about books, engage in phonics and word study activities, and reread books to practice phrased reading and apply independent reading strategies. Teachers also provide instruction in comprehension. Children discuss books and return to the text to clarify their understanding or provide evidence of their thinking. Students also take home books to reread with their families. Rereading enables students to practice the strategies they are learning, supports fluent reading, and builds self-confidence.
LLI lessons are differentiated and flexible, so students can join new groups if their progress rate surpasses or lags behind their peer group. Students are assessed both formally and informally and are discontinued when they reach grade level reading benchmarks.